Category Archives: Commodity

Corn earworm found in Virginia peanut fields

Peanut scouts in Suffolk today found fields with above threshold numbers of corn earworm/tobacco budworm (4 per row foot). Fields previously treated recently with chlorpyrifos may be at higher risk because they have fewer beneficial predators.

Black beat cloths can aide in sampling. However, shaking and slapping plants will dislodge worms onto soil for easy counting. Make sure and check around the base of the plant when using either method.

Feeding damage shows up in the form of holes in foliage. Worms may also feed on terminals and flowers so scouting for damage alone is not recommended. Peanuts can lose a lot of leaf material without losing yield, but drought-stressed or herbicide injured plants are at higher risk for yield-loss. Do not spray unless necessary. Recent dry weather in combination with broad-spectrum insecticides can flair spider mites.

Pyrethoids are a common choice for earworm control in Virginia and most products can be tank mixed with a fungicide to save money. Always read and follow label instructions. Pyrethroids are losing efficacy against earworm and we have experienced spray failures in other crops (soybean, cotton, sweet corn). Budworm have been resistant to pyrethroids for some time. You will not be able to distinguish these two species in the field. Refer to NCSU video for details. Do not expect complete control of large worms or high populations. Alternative products labeled in peanut include Prevathon, Besiege, Steward, Radiant, Intrepid Edge, and Blackhawk. A list of products and rates is included in Virginia Tech’s Pest Management Guide.

Plant bug control in blooming cotton

Tarnished plant bugs continue to be a problem in some Virginia cotton fields. This week, scouts found 14 of 32 fields over the pre-bloom threshold (8 per 100 sweeps) and increasing numbers of nymphs. Drop cloth sampling is recommended for blooming cotton and counting squares is no longer a good indication of feeding. Threshold is 2-3 bugs per sample. Check out this short video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XRnZhLczZJ0) if you have questions on how to use this method or are unsure of what nymphs look like. Dirty blooms indicate feeding, but active populations should be confirmed before a spray is made.

As cotton begins to bloom, neonicotinoids (e.g., Admire Pro, Centric, Belay) lose efficacy and I recommend rotating to a pyrethroid, a pyrethroid/acephate mix, or Bidrin. These products will  also control stink bugs if present. Transform is not labeled in Virginia, but our representative in Richmond is working hard to get us a Section 18 and I hope to have one in place by next year at the latest. All of these products will kill beneficial predators in your field. This is a concern as we near bollworm egg lay in cotton.

I encourage you to treat for insect pests only when thresholds are reached. Plant bug control will likely be needed through mid-August when populations peak, even in fields that have been previously sprayed. Spider mites, aphids, and bollworm (in two-gene cotton) risk increases with each broad-spectrum insecticide use, as does the risk for sprayer fatigue.

Special thanks to graduate student Seth Dorman and crew for their continued scouting efforts.

Sweet Corn IPM Scouting in VA Kicks Off

Fig. 1. Corn earworm larva in sweet corn.

Corn earworm (Fig. 1) and fall armyworm are two important pests of a number of agricultural crops in Virginia. Sweet corn, in particular, is extremely vulnerable to attack by the larvae (or caterpillars) of these moth pests. Monitoring moth catch in pheromone-baited traps can help IPM decision-making. Corn earworm is monitored using Heliothis traps (Fig 2). Pheromone lures are changed once per month and traps are monitored every few days. In general trap catch less than 1 per night means relatively low pest pressure and sprays can probably be spaced 5-6 days apart during silking. However, a catch of >1 or >13 moths per night means moderate and high pest pressure, respectively, and a more frequent spray interval is justified.
For fall armyworm, pheromone-baited bucket traps (Fig 3) are used to alert growers to the arrival of this late summer migrant from the South and its relative pest pressure.

Fig. 2. Heliothis trap being checked by summer intern Cailin Orgen for CEW moths in Frederick County, VA.

Fig. 3. Fall armyworm bucket trap.

In 2018, with the help from 14 VCE agents, we are monitoring these pests on sweet corn farms in 17 different counties in Virginia. Moth Trap Catch Data are being recorded by: Kuhar Vegetable Entomology lab (Montgomery Co.); Phil Blevins (Washington Co.); Chris Brown (Franklin Co.); Jason Cooper (Rockingham Co.); Ursula Deitch (Northampton Co.); Helene Doughty (Accomack Co.); Roy Flanagan (VA Beach); Bob Jones (Charlotte Co.); Kenner Love (Page and Rappahannock Co.); Laura Maxey Nay (Hanover Co.); Steve Pottorff (Carrol Co.); Stephanie Romelczyk (Westmoreland Co.); Beth Sastre-Flores (Loudoun Co.); Laura Siegle (Amelia Co.); Rebekah Slabach (Halifax Co.); and Mark Sutphin (Frederick Co.). Data will be posted weekly.
Here are some trap catch results (moths per night) for some of the locations around Virginia for this week (note we do not have data for all locations yet):

Region    County              Field                 CEW/night   FAW/night
Eastern Accomack          Painter
Eastern Accomack          Painter
Eastern Virginia Beach   Cromwell              5.0               NA
Eastern Virginia Beach   Henley                  4.0                  0
Eastern Virginia Beach   Vaughan              1.0                 0.2
Eastern Northampton    Capeville             1.8                   0
Eastern Northampton    Cheriton              3.0                   0
Eastern Northampton    Eastville               1.1                   0
Eastern Northampton    Exmore              12.9                  0
Eastern Westmoreland  Field
Central Amelia Field
Central Hanover Wiblin
Central Hanover Haynes
Central Halifax
Central Halifax
Central Charlotte
Northern Loudoun
Northern Loudoun
Northern Rappahannock
Northern Page
Northern Frederick West Oaks
Northern Frederick Woodbine
Northern Rockingham
Southwest Montgomery Whitethorne        0.0                0
Southwest Montgomery Homefield Farm  1.0                0
Southwest Montgomery Wall                      20.0               0
Southwest Franklin Wirtz
Southwest Carroll
Southwest Washington Abingdon

Walk Your Fields

For greater soybean yields, one of the best things that you can do is walk your fields.  Many problems reveal themselves during the summer.  Actions taken or not taken can be very noticeable.  By walking fields, we can see what’s working and what’s not working.  Certain problems can be solved, some cannot.  For those that cannot be solved this year, we can do better next season by understanding why we have the problem.  Therefore, a review of how to diagnose your crop will likely beneficial.

A few years ago, I published “Troubleshooting The Soybean Crop“.  Although a little dated, most of the information is still good.  This publication will guide you through how to go about diagnosing problems, includes a vegetative- and reproductive-stage outline with lots of photos, and also includes a sample crop scouting and diagnostic form.  You can download a view a PDF copy, or contact me – I still have a few hard copies left.  By following some general guidelines, one can become quite good at diagnosing problems.  Below is a summary.

First, document everything!  Memories tend to fade.  We often forget or overlook details. You can document by taken notes (many phone apps or iPad/tablets work well for this).  Make a recording.  Take pictures – this is especially useful when you need help – and send those photos to others.

PRELIMINARY FACT FINDING.  You can obtain plenty of information before you even get to the field.  Although I call this preliminary (as if you’ve not seen the problem), you may need to go back to the office to refresh your memory of what you did.  Information that can be acquired beforehand or back in the office includes:     

  • Cropping History
  • Equipment
  • Soil Information
  • Weather
  • Pest Management Information
  • Tillage and Other Cultural Practices

THE FIELD VISIT

  • Take all materials and equipment needed (e.g., phones, paper, shovel, plastic bags, soil probes, etc.)
  • Windshield/Whole Field Investigation
  • Above-Ground Inspection
  • Take Appropriate Plant or Soil Samples
  • Equipment Check
  • Interaction with Others
  • Document Everything!

ANALYSIS OF DATA AND FINDINGS

  • Patterns
  • Look-Alike Symptoms
  • Interacting Factors/More Than One Problem

DRAWING A CONCLUSION. Review the facts and data.  Eliminate unlikely causes.  Validate likely causes.  You may be able to drawn a conclusion in the field, but lab analysis may be needed.

FOLLOW UP. Revisit the field.  If you took corrective action, did it work?  Why or why not?

This is a very rough outline of the guide.  Again, if you want a hard copy of Troubleshooting The Soybean Crop, contact me.

Peanut iPiPE and Disease Advisories

Especially with all the wet weather we have been having in much of the region, it is time to start thinking about peanut diseases. We do not typically see a lot of disease until the canopy closes, but once the vines are touching the environment within the canopy becomes favorable for disease development. Leaf spot programs should be applied beginning at early beginning pod then according to a calendar-based (usually 14 day intervals) or advisory based program. The leaf spot advisory for Virginia can be found at https://webipm.ento.vt.edu/cgi-bin/infonet1.cgi. Some keys to a successful leaf spot fungicide program include:

  1. Make the first application at the appropriate time (not too late).
  2. Apply fungicides regularly before leaf spot outbreaks are observed (once disease is present it is difficult to slow down the epidemic).
  3. Stick to a regular calendar-based program or utilize leaf spot advisories.
  4. Be mindful of fungicide resistance management (rotate chemistries and/or tank mix with chlorothalonil).
  5. Scout for soil-borne diseases and utilize fungicides with activity against both leaf spot and other target diseases (e.g. for both late leaf spot and southern stem rot control use a product such as Provost, Elatus, Priaxor, etc.).

Data are currently being collected to improve both leaf spot and Sclerotinia advisories and to develop a southern stem rot fungicide advisory for peanut. This is being conducted through the Peanut iPiPE program. The Integrated Pest Information Platform for Extension and Education (iPiPE) is a program that allows farmers and extension agents to share information with each other through the internet.  iPiPE works by allowing users to enter pest data such as presence and severity of diseases or insects. This data will be shared with everyone in an effort to create a more precise system of pest monitoring and management. The Plant Pathology program at the Virginia Tech Tidewater AREC is leading the Peanut iPiPE and using it to improve disease advisories based on observations of disease onset in peanut fields throughout the region. Two undergraduate interns are currently scouting for peanut diseases in the region, and they will enter disease observations into the iPiPE database.

Disease and pest observations can be easily uploaded to the database through a mobile phone app or the online platform. We are encouraging anyone who scouts peanuts to help us collect disease observations. To become a participant, you can request an iPiPE account by visiting the iPiPE platform (http://www.ipipe.org/). Detailed information on the iPiPE platform and a user guide for the mobile app can be downloaded below. Alternatively, you can email disease observations to Dr. Hillary Mehl (hlmehl@vt.edu). In addition, if you are located in southeastern Virginia or northeastern North Carolina and are interested in having your peanut crop scouted for diseases by our iPiPE interns, please contact us.

Peanut iPiPE Stakeholder Card 2018

Peanut iPiPE Users Guide 2018

For more information or questions regarding the Peanut iPiPE contact Dr. Hillary Mehl (hlmehl@vt.edu).

 

 

 

Yellow soybean leaves may be due to manganese (Mn) deficiency

Manganese (Mn) deficiencies are common in Virginia soybean and are starting to appear in numerous fields.  These deficiencies are not necessarily due to low Mn levels in the soil, but are more likely related to high soil pH levels, as its availability decreases with increasing soil pH.

Although soils with a pH of 6.2 or lower can occasional show Mn deficiencies, it is most likely to appear when pH levels reach 6.5 or above.  Furthermore, Mn deficiencies are more common on our sandier soils because pH changes more rapidly and these soils typically have a lower concentration of the nutrient.

The deficiency will appear as interveinal chlorosis, usually on the younger leaves first since Mn is not a mobile nutrient.  MnDeficiency0721101059This may distinguish Mn deficiency from magnesium (Mg) deficiency.  Magnesium deficiency symptoms will usually appear on the lower leaves while the upper leaves remain green.  Still, I’ve seen Mn deficiency on the lower to middle leaves.  This usually happens when the field has not been checked in a while and the observer missed the symptoms when they were on the younger leaves.Cyst nematode on roots

Other problems can cause look-alike symptoms similar to Mn deficiencies.  In particular, interveinal yellowing is a common symptom of soybean cyst or other nematode damage.  Therefore, it may be prudent to further investigate the problem, especially the root system.

Use the following guidelines for Mn applications:

Scout your fields.  Mn deficiencies may or may not materialize.  The only sure way to determine a deficiency is to observe the deficiency symptoms through visual observation or tissue tests.  The characteristic visual symptom is yellowing between the veins on the new leaves.  Mn is an immobile nutrient.  Therefore, it will not move out of older leaves to the new leaves.  Symptoms will appear when the plant can no longer extract sufficient amounts of the nutrient from the soil.

Take a tissue sample.  If Mn deficiencies are suspected due to high pH and/or a field history of Mn deficiencies, but no symptoms have yet appeared, you should consider taking a tissue sample.  Tissue samples can reveal deficiencies before symptoms appear (hidden hunger).  We suggest a tissue test if lime, lime stabilized biosolids, or an ash product was recently applied.

Manganese application.  To overcome a deficiency, apply ¾ lb. chelated Mn (elemental basis) or 1 lb. inorganic Mn (elemental basis) per acre to foliage upon appearance of symptoms and prior to flowering.  More than one application may be required to correct a severe deficiency.

Don’t use low rates to correct a deficiency.  Note that many Mn products recommend applying lower rates of Mn.  However, the label usually states that these are maintenance rates.  Once a deficiency occurs, these lower rates will not correct the deficiency and the rates stated above will be needed.

Split Mn application on deficiency-prone soils.  An alternate method of application can be used before a deficiency is evident on soils that commonly show a deficiency, especially on soils that have a high pH (above 6.8 or so).  A lower rate (~ ½ of that listed above) can be combined with another scheduled application, such as a postemergence herbicide or insecticide.  This may be a sufficient rate to prevent a deficiency from occurring.  But, continue to scout the field and take future corrective measures if visual deficiencies appear.  If a visual symptom appears, you need to use the full rate.  I will remind you that this is a preventative treatment.  A deficiency may not occur.  Furthermore, these are only maintenance rates and another application will likely be needed if the field is truly deficient.

Use EDTA chelated Mn formulations when mixing with glyphosate.  Be reminded that some Mn formulations in combination with glyphosate herbicide (Roundup, Touchdown, many generics, etc.) will result in reduced weed control of certain weeds.  Other herbicides have not shown to interact.  If including Mn with glyphosate, use the EDTA chelated formulation as it has shown not to interact.

Don’t spray if you don’t need it.  In addition to the cost, Mn can be toxic to soybean.  Spraying greater than recommended rates or spraying as a preventative spray when soil pH is relatively low (5.7-5.9) could lead to toxicity problems

Wet Soils, Poor Stands – Do I Replant?

The decision of whether or not to replant arises every year; however, the wet soil conditions seem to have worsened the problem this year.  There of course will be areas that the decision is easy – flooded areas resulting in almost no stand.  But, what about fields that just are not living up to your expectations?  I’ve seen and heard many reports of stands being reduced 25 to 50% of what was expected (keep in mind that our expectations are sometimes too high).

First, I must mention that final average stands of 60,000 to 80,000 plants/acre rarely profit from replanting.  Only when you get below 50,000 can it be economically justified.  I refer you to the seeding rate data shown.  Note that yield does not fall off until seeding rates fall below 90 to 120 thousand seed/acre (76 to 107 seed/acre on productive soils).  Stands generally averaged 75%; so, this is equal to  65 to 90 thousand plants/acre.  Once you add in the cost and of and time required to replant, it’s not usually worth it – unless the stand less than this.