Category Archives: Peanut

Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation. I. Agronomic and Grade Data

The 2017 PVQE agronomic and grading results are available here  In 2017, 25 peanut breeding lines from the North Carolina State University’s Peanut Breeding program were tested and compared with five commercial cultivars at five locations in Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. At two locations, two digging dates were performed, bringing the number of testing environments to seven. Data include the 2017 released cultivar ‘Bailey II’ tested as line ‘N12008olCLSmT’.  Bailey II is a Virginia-type line derived by backcrossing the high oleic seed oil trait patented by the University of Florida into the cultivar ‘Bailey’. Bailey II has approximately 44% jumbo and 43% fancy pods, and seeds with tan seed coat averaging 600 seed lb-1. Bailey II is partially resistant to three of four major regional diseases: leaf spot, Sclerotinia blight, and Tomato Spotted Wilt virus, but it should be considered susceptible to Cylindrocladium black rot. Bailey II has bright pods and flavor comparable with runner-type standards. Yields and the number of days to maturity are similar with Bailey (145 days). In PVQE trials, Bailey II out yielded the popular Bailey in all years of testing.


Peanut State Production and Marketing 2018 Meeting

The 2018 Peanut State Production and Marketing meeting will be held at Paul D. Camp Workforce and Development Center, Franklin, VA, on February 14. Here the program is available. Agenda for the peanut meeting Please make sure to attend this meeting offering important updates on agronomy, varieties, and pest management that will help growers make research based decisions for a successful 2018 peanut growing season.

Looking forward to see you there.

50th APRES Annual Meeting

American Peanut Research and Extension Society (APRES) will held its annual meeting and the 50th anniversary at the Doubletree Hotel in Williamsburg, VA, during July 10 through 12. The “Early Bird” Registration fee is $250 for members; spouses and children attend free. APRES has secured a group hotel rate of $129/night and a few per diem rooms at $91/night. The registration and the official call for papers are open, and complete details can be found on the APRES website

As every year, Bayer CropSciences is sponsoring the Peanut Education for Excellence Program as part of the American Peanut Research and Education Society (APRES) annual meeting. They also fully fund the participation of one Agent at the annual meetings. The agent will have to submit an abstract and make an oral presentation in the Extension/Education section of the meeting about extension and technology transfer programs implemented for peanut production in their counties. The deadline for abstract submission is March 31.  In collaboration with the VA Peanut Board, I will continue to explore more funding opportunities to increase Agent participation at this important research and education meeting on peanut production.

I encourage all Extension Agents with peanut responsibilities to use this opportunity and participate at the 2018 APRES meeting.

Dicamba Training Announcement

The federal labels for XtendiMax® herbicide with VaporGrip® Technology (Monsanto), Dow DuPont ® FeXapan® herbicide Plus VaporGrip® Technology, and Engenia® Herbicide (BASF) now require additional training beyond a Pesticide Applicator’s License prior to use of these products “over the top” of dicamba-tolerant soybean or cotton.  Training for 2018 will be provided by the registrants of the products (BASF, Monsanto, and Dow DuPont).

Agents/dealers interested in scheduling a training in their area or having a company representative deliver the training at an already scheduled meeting should contact the following company representatives:







Eastern Shore

Gar Thomas



Rest of Virginia

Kelly Liberator




Jeff Phillips



Southeast Virginia

Ken Lampkin


If you schedule a training with either BASF, Dow DuPont, or Monsanto, I would encourage you to make the other companies aware of the training planned in your area.  That way, the companies can better coordinate their efforts to reach as many applicators as possible.  Also, training by any of the three registrants will cover all dicamba products labeled for in-crop use to dicamba-tolerant soybean or cotton (applicators do not need to take training from the registrant of the specific dicamba product they intend to use).

In lieu of the face-to-face trainings, the companies also plan to have a web-based training that will satisfy applicator training requirements.  Michael and I feel the face-to-face training will better prepare the applicators for the off-target challenges of dicamba.  Web-based training can be used as a last resort if a grower is unable to attend face-to-face training.  The following websites offer more information on web-based training:

There are a few trainings scheduled for the area.  See the  link below for an announcement from Monsanto for two training sessions in Suffolk, VA on Wednesday January 31st.  BASF will be training applicators at the Virginia Grains & Soybean Conference (  The BASF training for this meeting is schedule for Wednesday February 21st at 12:00pm.  I anticipate both companies to have other training;  Michael and I will keep you updated as we receive word.  Please help spread the word on these trainings, as many growers still do not know that training is required.  Also,I would encourage you and your applicators to pre-register for the events so folks can plan accordingly.

With that said, feel free to reach out to Michael or me if you have any questions or concerns.

Monsanto Dicamba Training Announcement

Eastern Shore AREC Field Day CANCELED!

Due to impending rain Tuesday and Wednesday and already saturated soils, the Eastern Shore AREC field day scheduled for Wednesday, September 13, 2017 has been canceled. Let’s hope Hurricane Irma keeps tracking further west. We certainly do not need any more rain!

EPA decision on chlorpyrifos

The head of the EPA, Scott Pruitt, signed an order last night denying the petition to ban chlorpyrifos (Lorsban). This decision will allow peanut growers in our area the continued use of this insecticide for the foreseeable future, perhaps until 2022 when the EPA is required to reevaluate safety of this product. The environmental group that filed the 2007 petition to ban chlorpyrifos has announced its plans to appeal the decision.  More information can be found here –

Scout now for marestail/horseweed

Recent mild temperatures and the mild winter are setting the stage for rapid development of marestail/horseweed (Conyza canadensis) this spring.  Marestail was particularly troublesome last year in soybeans.  Marestail can germinate in both the fall and the spring. It is more likely to overwinter in the rosette stage during mild winters.  If you wait until your typical burndown the marestail may start bolting and therefore be more difficult to control. Adding to this difficulty, many marestail populations are resistant to Roundup (and other glyphosate containing products). You should scout your fields targeted for soybeans now to identify overwintering marestail.  Marestail control can be achieved with 2,4-D  or dicamba now and still offer plenty of time to avoid plant back restrictions (up to 15 days for 2,4-D or up to 28 days for dicamba). Glyphosate resistant weeds and the difficulty in controlling more mature weeds underscore the need to scout fields earlier and use some alternative herbicides in your program.  Always consult the product label for specific instructions.

Planning for Planting Date and Seeding Rate for 2017 Peanut Season in Virginia

There may be more peanut and cotton acreage planted in the V-C region this year than in 2016; and growers may wonder what crop to start planting first and which one last. These are legitimate concerns and we may have, at least in part, answers.

For peanut, mid-May planting seems to carry least risk compared with late April to early May or late May to early June plantings. This is quite common knowledge gathered through extensive research at the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Suffolk VA and Peanut Belt Research Station in Lewiston NC.  However, researchers agree that all depends on the weather. For example, research I did in 2009, a relatively cool and wet year with 17 inches of rainfall from May through the end of August, clearly showed that April 20 planting resulted in a statistically significant yield reduction of 780 pounds per acre in comparison with a May 15 planting. At the state level, average yield in Virginia in 2009 was 3700 pounds per acre, similar with the average yield in 2016. Year 2010 was hot and dry with less than an inch precipitation in June, July and August combined. In this year, state average yield was only 1800 pounds per acre and our results indicated that April 15 planting of Bailey resulted in substantially more yield than late May (May 21) planting. The majority of other peanut commercial cultivars tested in that year responded in a similar way; but there were a few exceptions like Sugg, Gregory, and the runner Georgia 09B, which performed well when planted on May 3, but still low when plated on May 21.  The first two weeks in May (maybe end of April too with good thrips control) may be best for peanut planting if April and May are warm with constant daily temperatures of 65 °F or more, sunny days, and night temperatures of 45 °F or more, and soil has “right” moisture; if moisture is excessive, the soil is probably cool. If April and May are cool and wet like last year, maybe waiting for after mid-May to plant peanut is the best option. Varieties seem to respond differently to planting time, but information on the new high oleic cultivars needs investigation.

In 2011 and 2012, I looked at how combination of planting date, seeding rate and tillage affects peanut yield. Results from these years were also dependent upon the specific weather conditions of each year. Across the state, both years were “good” years for peanut, with state averages of 4100 and 4200 pounds per acre; but in 2011, the hurricane in August dropped 18 inches of water at one time, and weather was considerably warmer than in 2012. In 2011, planting on April 25, May 5 or May 23 did not significantly changed yield, in particular when 5 or 6 seeds per foot-row were seeded. Some yield reductions were observed when only 3 seeds per foot were used. However, in 2012 Bailey yielded approximately 1000 pounds per acre more when planted on May 12 in comparison with April 30 and May 23 or June 1; and yields were about 100 pounds per acre greater in conventional versus strip till.

We concluded that the optimum time for peanut planting in Virginia is May 5 to May 20. Planting early may have lower yields due to thrips damage, and cool and wet soils; later plantings may also drop yield due to poor germination and crop stand; and recommended increase of seeding rate to 5 or 6 seeds per foot when planting outside this time window. More information on this research is here.


Strip versus conventional till for peanut

Research at the North Carolina State University showed that peanut yields were lower when planted on fine-textured soiled in strip tillage in comparison with conventional tillage.  Yield reduction appeared to be associated with greater pod loss in the digging process for the strip versus conventional tillage. Use of stale seedbeds, by bedding rows without other tillage operations sometime after the harvest of previous crop and 4 to 6 weeks prior to planting peanut, was further proposed as a tillage practice that could alleviate yield reduction due to strip tillage. Research using corn, cotton and grain sorghum as rotation crops showed that, indeed, depending on year and location peanut yielded greater in stale seedbed and strip tilled land versus just strip-tilled soil. For example, in 2006 at Rocky Mount, NC, when soil was bedded and strip tilled, pod yield was 3620 pounds per acre, significantly more than 2570 pounds per acre when peanut was planted directly into stripped soil and crop stubble. However, similar responses were not observed in 2002 at either Lewiston or Rocky Mount; which probably denotes that more research is needed to document if stale beds in crop stubbles and in strip tillage peanut production work. According with these researchers, peanut yield in longer rotations was higher than yield of shorter rotation, but the rotation crop had no effect. The full article is here peanut-notes-2017-no-23-peanut-strip-tilled-into-grain-sorghum-stubble.

Information on the pesticides under European Union scrutiny

The European Union (EU) is reviewing the current maximum residue levels (MRLs) for pesticides, some being used in peanut production. The process started in 2016 and will continue in 2017. As expected, peanut imports in EU may be affected by these changes. I am providing here information on these products (credit David Jordan and American Peanut Council), and I will continue to do so when I have new information. Although under review, please note that not all pesticides may have their MRLs lowered. peanut-notes-2017-no-12-comments-on-pesticides-eu-peanut-imports peanut-notes-2017-no-11-wto-communication-on-pesticides-and-mrls