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Estimating Soybean Yield

This is the time of year when many are wondering what kind of yield potential is out there.  You can estimate your yield using the steps outlined below.  But I will warn you that such an estimate is not very accurate until soybean reach the late-R6 or R7 stage.  In my experience, when trying to estimate yields during the late-R5 or early-R6 stages, cut the estimate in half – believe it or not, that usually works!

My point is to use extreme caution.  Never make additional sales based on these “estimates”.  But, such an estimate is useful if you’re thinking about entering a yield contest or just to help ease some worries (or maybe cause more).

To estimate soybean yield:

  1. Calculate the number of pod-bearing plants per acre.  Use the 1/100th of an acre method: Count the number of plants per 70 foot of row (7.5-inch spacing), 35 foot per row (15-inch spacing), or 17.5 foot per row (30-inch spacing) – You can adjust this for other row spacings; then multiply by 1000.  Do this in 5 to 10 locations per field, depending on field size or area of interest.
  2. Estimate the number of pods per plant.  Some say to collect 10 random plants.  I don’t particularly like this method because we tend to select the best plants and overlook the weaker ones with few pods.  I suggest taking 10 plants in a row from the same locations you sampled for plant population.  Divide the number by 10 to get pods per plant.
  3. Estimate the number of seed per pod.  This gets a little more difficult.  You can choose a number from visually observations or you can just use 2, 2.5, or 3 seed per pod to get a range.  If the seed are mature, you can shell and count all pods from several plants at each  sampling location (just remember how many pods you shelled).
  4. Estimate the number of seed per pound.  3,000 seed per pound is about average, but it can range from 3,500 to 2,500 per pound.  Also, be careful with varieties that commonly contain 3 seed pods; the seed of these varieties will almost always be smaller.  Another way to do this is to weigh the seed that you shelled from step 3 – be careful, you need to account for seed moisture and if the seed are not yet mature, they may have not stopped filling.

Use the numbers above to calculate yield using the equation below:

Bushels per Acre  = [(plants/1,000th acre) x (pods/plant) x (seeds/pod)] ÷ (seeds/pound) ÷ (60 pounds/bushel)

The easiest mistake to make is in steps 3 and 4.  I suggest using a range of seed per pod and seeds/pound.  With experience, you’ll get pretty good with yield estimates.

2017 Virginia Soybean Yield Contest

The Virginia Soybean Association in cooperation with Virginia Cooperative Extension would like to announce the 2017 Virginia Soybean Yield Contest. The purpose of the Virginia Soybean Yield Contest is to emphasize and demonstrate the practices necessary to produce maximum economic yields, to recognize those producers who grow high-yielding soybeans, and to gather data on the practices utilized by these outstanding producers. With the help of various seed companies, we reward and promote the achievements of Virginia’s most productive soybean farmers.

There are four Soybean Yield Contest categories: 1) Full-Season, Non-irrigated; 2) Double-Crop, Non-irrigated; and 3) Irrigated (encompasses Full-Season and Double-Crop); and 4) Most Efficient Yield (MEY). First, second, and third place winners of the full-season, double-crop, and irrigated contest will be recognized with appropriate trophies or plaques. In addition, cash awards of $200, $100, and $50 will be presented to the first, second, and third place winners in each of these categories. The winner of the MEY contest will receive a plaque declaring him or her the most efficient soybean producer in Virginia for that year.

In addition, the United Soybean Board is supporting a Soybean Quality Contest for the 2017 season.  The Iowa State University Grain Quality Lab with evaluate these samples for protein, oil, and other quality measures.  You can obtain a sample bag from me.  If you do not have one at the time of harvest, just save a seed sample in a 1 gallon bag and send in to my office.

Printable entry forms and contest details can be obtained from your County Agent or on my website:  (https://www.arec.vaes.vt.edu/arec/tidewater/extension/soybean.html).  I look forward to seeing your entries.

Peanut Maturity in Virginia

According to the weather recordings (http://webipm.ento.vt.edu/cgi-bin/infonet1.cgi), the heat units received by peanuts grown in Virginia from May 1 through September 5 are in average 2370 °F.  There are, of course, location variations. For example, in Suffolk total heat units from May 1 is 2566 °F, in Southampton 2314 °F, Greensville 2480 °F, and Waverly 2123 °F.  The current Virginia type commercial cultivars predominantly grown in Virginia require in average 2650 °F to optimum maturity. With a daily average of 70 °F recorded in the past week, optimum maturity seems to happen in the next day and a half to 7.5 days. However, would it?

Probably not, and the pictures below prove it. Today, Sep 6, we determined the maturity of four cultivars, Bailey, Sullivan, Emery and Wynn, planted in Suffolk on May 3.  Based on the mesocarp color, when laid on a color maturity chart, it seems that a minimum of 20 to 24 days are still needed to reach the optimum digging for this location and the current season. In average, cultivars only have 1% of black pods, 14% brown, 20% orange, 44% yellow and 22% white.

Pod blasting demonstrations will take place this week Friday, September 8, at the Southampton Fairgrounds from 8:00 AM to noon. It will be a repeat at Indika Farms in Windsor on September 14; times will have to be determined, but probably also in the morning. See you there with your peanut samples to be pod blasted!

Current maturity of Bailey peanut planted on May 3 In Suffolk, VA.

Current maturity of Sullivan peanut planted on May 3 in Suffolk, VA.

Current maturity of Emery peanut planted on May 3 in Suffolk, VA.

Current maturity of Wynne peanut planted on May 3 in Suffolk, VA.

Eastern Shore AREC Field DAY: September 13th, 2017

Please join us for Virginia Tech’s Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center (ESAREC) 2017 Research Field Day on Wednesday, September 13th. Registration is free, open to the public and will begin at 8:00 AM at the ESAREC complex located at 33446 Research Drive, Painter, Virginia 23420. The field tour will begin at 9:00 AM and conclude with lunch at 12:30 PM.  See the attached flyer for specific projects to be highlighted and more information.

If you would like more information or are interested in sponsoring this event, please contact Lauren Seltzer at 757-414-0724 ext. 11 or email at mlpeyton@vt.edu.

2017 ESAREC Field Day Announcement

Sweet corn moth trap monitoring in VA – Week of Aug 27, 2017

Monitoring sweet corn for pest moth activity can help reduce the number of insecticide applications.  At Kentland Farm in Whitethorne, VA, we recently harvested the first of several tests, where we followed an IPM approach and compared it to sprays of the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin 3 times per week during silking.  We saw no difference in the level of control from an IPM approach- only spraying when needed and spraying the diamide Coragen first compared with the frequent lambda pyrethroid sprays.   We will be harvesting multiple sites for this experiment and will share these when all of the data are in.  Several commercial sweet corn farms are still being monitored around Virginia for corn earworm and fall armyworm.  However, many fields have been harvested already and trapping has been discontinued.  Moth Trap Catch Data are being recorded by:  Katlyn Catron  (Montgomery Co.); Jason Cooper (Rockingham Co.); Ursula Deitch (Northampton Co.); Helene Doughty (Accomack Co. & Virginia Beach); Kenner Love (Rappahannock Co.); Laura Maxey Nay (Hanover Co.); Steve Pottorff (Carrol Co.); Stephanie Romelczyk  (Westmoreland Co.); Laura Siegle (Amelia Co.); and Mark Sutphin (Frederick Co.).

This week we observed general drop-off in corn earworm moth catch at many locations, but a big jump in numbers in Rockingham County in the Shenandoah Valley.  Fall armyworm moths never really amounted to anything this year. For corn earworm, moth trap catch of less than 1 per night means  low pest pressure and sweet corn sprays can probably be spaced 5-6 days apart during silking.  However, a catch of >1 or >13 moths per night means moderate and high pest pressure, respectively, and a more frequent spray interval (every 3 or 2 days) is justified.  Here are the trap catch results (moths per night) for several locations around Virginia for this week (note we do not have data for all locations):

Week of Aug 27 (avg)
Region County Field CEW/night FAW/night
Eastern Shore Accomack ESAREC – cemetery 3.1 NA
Eastern Shore Accomack ESAREC – woods NA NA
Eastern Shore Accomack ESAREC – sweet corn 2.5 0
Eastern Shore Northampton Bridge Tunnel NA NA
Eastern Shore Northampton Capeville 1 NA 0
Eastern Shore Northampton Cape charles NA NA
Eastern Shore Northampton Eastville NA 0.2
Eastern Shore Northampton Nassawaddox NA 0.4
Virginia Beach Virginia Beach Pungo 1 NA NA
Piedmont Amelia Field 1 NA NA
Piedmont Hanover Farm 1 NA 0.4
Piedmont Hanover Haynes NA NA
Northern Neck Westmoreland Field 1 1.0 0.0
Northern Neck Westmoreland Field 2 NA NA
Shenandoah Valley Rappahannock Field 1 2.7 0
Shenandoah Valley Page Field 1 NA NA
Shenandoah Valley Frederick Farm 1 10.5 0
Shenandoah Valley Frederick Farm 2 15.5 0
Shenandoah Valley Rockingham Farm 1 18.1 0
Shenandoah Valley Rockingham Farm 2 NA NA
New River Valley Montgomery KC 0 0
New River Valley Montgomery KO1 1 0
New River Valley Montgomery KO2 1 NA
New River Valley Montgomery WF1 0 NA
New River Valley Montgomery WF2 0 NA
New River Valley Montgomery WF3 0 NA
New River Valley Montgomery WS1 1 NA
New River Valley Montgomery WS2 0 NA
New River Valley Montgomery WS3 1 NA
Southwest Carroll NA NA

Sweetcorn insect pest monitoring across VA for week of Aug 20, 2017

Large corn earworm larva in sweet corn soon getting ready to exit the ear to pupate in the ground.

Monitoring sweet corn for pest moth activity can help reduce the number of insecticide applications.  At Kentland Farm in Whitethorne, VA, we recently harvested the first of several tests, where we followed an IPM approach and compared it to sprays of the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin 3 times per week during silking.  We saw no difference in the level of control from an IPM approach- only spraying when needed and spraying the diamide Coragen first compared with the frequent lambda pyrethroid sprays.   We will be harvesting multiple sites for this experiment and will share these when all of the data are in.  Commercial sweet corn farms are being monitored around Virginia for corn earworm and fall armyworm.  Moth Trap Catch Data are being recorded by:  Katlyn Catron  (Montgomery Co.); Jason Cooper (Rockingham Co.); Ursula Deitch (Northampton Co.); Helene Doughty (Accomack Co. & Virginia Beach); Kenner Love (Rappahannock Co.); Laura Maxey Nay (Hanover Co.); Steve Pottorff (Carrol Co.); Stephanie Romelczyk  (Westmoreland Co.); Laura Siegle (Amelia Co.); Rebekah Slabach (Halifax Co.); and Mark Sutphin (Frederick Co.).

This week we continued to observe moderate (above threshold) corn earworm moth catch at many locations, to warrant continued spraying.  Some of the areas with the highest CEW activity continue to be the Eastern Shore, and Frederick Co.; however, CEW moth catch has increased in Westmoreland, Rockinham, and Hanover Co.   We still have seen few to no fall armyworm moths yet. For corn earworm, moth trap catch of less than 1 per night means  low pest pressure and sweet corn sprays can probably be spaced 5-6 days apart during silking.  However, a catch of >1 or >13 moths per night means moderate and high pest pressure, respectively, and a more frequent spray interval (every 3 or 2 days) is justified.  Here are the trap catch results (moths per night) for several locations around Virginia for this week (note we do not have data for all locations):

Week of Aug 20 (avg)
Region County Field CEW/night FAW/night
Eastern Shore Accomack ESAREC – cemetery 1.4 NA
Eastern Shore Accomack ESAREC – woods NA NA
Eastern Shore Accomack ESAREC – sweet corn 1.4 0.2
Eastern Shore Northampton Bridge Tunnel 8.4 NA
Eastern Shore Northampton Capeville 1 1.3 0
Eastern Shore Northampton Cape charles 1.1 NA
Eastern Shore Northampton Eastville 5.3 0.2
Eastern Shore Northampton Nassawaddox 0.6 0.4
Virginia Beach Virginia Beach Pungo 1 NA NA
Piedmont Amelia Field 1 NA NA
Piedmont Hanover Farm 1 3.4 0.4
Piedmont Hanover Haynes NA NA
Northern Neck Westmoreland Field 1 7.0 0.6
Northern Neck Westmoreland Field 2 NA NA
Shenandoah Valley Rappahannock Field 1 3.5 0
Shenandoah Valley Page Field 1 NA NA
Shenandoah Valley Frederick Farm 1 5.6 0
Shenandoah Valley Frederick Farm 2 14.4 0
Shenandoah Valley Rockingham Farm 1 6.4 0
Shenandoah Valley Rockingham Farm 2 NA NA
New River Valley Montgomery KC NA NA
New River Valley Montgomery KO1 NA NA
New River Valley Montgomery KO2 NA NA
New River Valley Montgomery WF1 NA NA
New River Valley Montgomery WF2 NA NA
New River Valley Montgomery WF3 NA NA
New River Valley Montgomery WS1 NA NA
New River Valley Montgomery WS2 NA NA
New River Valley Montgomery WS3 NA NA
Southwest Carroll NA NA

Sweet corn pest monitoring in VA – Moth trap catch for week of Aug 13th

Although corn is not insect pollinated, it doesn’t mean that it doesn’t attract a lot of bees gathering up pollen from the tassels (Fig. 1).  Pyrethroid insecticides are quite toxic to bees, so spraying them during pollen shed will undoubtedly result in some bee kills.  What can you do if you need to protect your corn from “worm” pests?  Spraying an insecticide with low toxicity to bees (i.e., Coragen) during pollen shed can help.  Also monitoring for pest activity and possibly limiting the number of sprays can also help.

Honey bees gathering pollen from sweet corn at Kentland Farm in Whitethorne, VA.

Sweet corn farms are being monitored around Virginia for corn earworm and fall armyworm.  Moth Trap Catch Data are being recorded by:  Katlyn Catron  (Montgomery Co.); Jason Cooper (Rockingham Co.); Ursula Deitch (Northampton Co.); Helene Doughty (Accomack Co. & Virginia Beach); Kenner Love (Rappahannock Co.); Laura Maxey Nay (Hanover Co.); Steve Pottorff (Carrol Co.); Stephanie Romelczyk  (Westmoreland Co.); Laura Siegle (Amelia Co.); Rebekah Slabach (Halifax Co.); and Mark Sutphin (Frederick Co.).

Male corn earworm moth on Heliothis Trap.

This week we continued to observe high corn earworm moth catch at many locations, to warrant frequent spraying.  Some of the areas with the highest CEW activity were on the Eastern Shore, Virginia Beach, Frederick Co., Montgomery Co. and Hanover Co.   We still have not seen very many  fall armyworm moths yet. For corn earworm, moth trap catch of less than 1 per night means  low pest pressure and sweet corn sprays can probably be spaced 5-6 days apart during silking.  However, a catch of >1 or >13 moths per night means moderate and high pest pressure, respectively, and a more frequent spray interval (every 3 or 2 days) is justified.  Here are the trap catch results (moths per night) for several locations around Virginia for this week (note we do not have data for all locations):

Week of Aug 13 (avg)
Region County Field CEW/night FAW/night
Eastern Shore Accomack ESAREC – cemetery 7.0 NA
Eastern Shore Accomack ESAREC – woods 0.2 NA
Eastern Shore Accomack ESAREC – sweet corn 19.7 0.2
Eastern Shore Northampton Bridge Tunnel 12.1 NA
Eastern Shore Northampton Capeville 1 0.8 0.5
Eastern Shore Northampton Cape charles 1.2 NA
Eastern Shore Northampton Eastville 3.1 0.8
Eastern Shore Northampton Nassawaddox 0.1 2
Virginia Beach Virginia Beach Pungo 1 16.1 0.7
Piedmont Amelia Field 1 NA NA
Piedmont Hanover Farm 1 3.5 0.5
Piedmont Hanover Haynes NA NA
Northern Neck Westmoreland Field 1 0.6 0.0
Northern Neck Westmoreland Field 2 NA NA
Shenandoah Valley Rappahannock Field 1 2.8 0.2
Shenandoah Valley Page Field 1 0.1 0
Shenandoah Valley Frederick Farm 1 5.6 0
Shenandoah Valley Frederick Farm 2 14.4 0
Shenandoah Valley Rockingham Farm 1 NA NA
Shenandoah Valley Rockingham Farm 2 NA NA
New River Valley Montgomery KC 0.9 0
New River Valley Montgomery KO1 4.9 0
New River Valley Montgomery KO2 9.4 0
New River Valley Montgomery WF1 1.1 NA
New River Valley Montgomery WF2 0.6 NA
New River Valley Montgomery WF3 0.7 NA
New River Valley Montgomery WS1 2.4 NA
New River Valley Montgomery WS2 0.9 NA
New River Valley Montgomery WS3 2.6 NA
Southwest Carroll NA NA

Sweet corn sampling across Virginia – Moth Catch for Week of Aug 6-10

 

 

 

 

Corn earworm larva developing fine on Bt sweet corn in Page County, VA.  Photo by Kenner Love, VCE.

Sweet corn farms are being monitored around Virginia for corn earworm and fall armyworm.  Moth Trap Catch Data are being recorded by:  Katlyn Catron  (Montgomery Co.); Jason Cooper (Rockingham Co.); Ursula Deitch (Northampton Co.); Helene Doughty (Accomack Co. & Virginia Beach); Kenner Love (Rappahannock Co.); Laura Maxey Nay (Hanover Co.); Steve Pottorff (Carrol Co.); Stephanie Romelczyk  (Westmoreland Co.); Laura Siegle (Amelia Co.); Rebekah Slabach (Halifax Co.); and Mark Sutphin (Frederick Co.).

Male corn earworm moth on Heliothis Trap.

This week we observed a general increase in corn earworm moth catch at many locations, to warrant frequent spraying.  Some of the areas with the highest CEW activity were on the Eastern Shore, Virginia Beach, Frederick Co., Montgomery Co. and Hanover Co.   We still have not seen very many  fall armyworm moths yet. For corn earworm, moth trap catch of less than 1 per night means  low pest pressure and sweet corn sprays can probably be spaced 5-6 days apart during silking.  However, a catch of >1 or >13 moths per night means moderate and high pest pressure, respectively, and a more frequent spray interval (every 3 or 2 days) is justified.  Here are the trap catch results (moths per night) for several locations around Virginia for this week (note we do not have data for all locations):

Week of Aug 6 (avg)
Region County Field CEW/night FAW/night
Eastern Shore Accomack ESAREC – cemetery 6.0 NA
Eastern Shore Accomack ESAREC – woods 0.2 NA
Eastern Shore Accomack ESAREC – sweet corn 18.6 0.9
Eastern Shore Northampton Bridge Tunnel 18.3 NA
Eastern Shore Northampton Capeville 1 1.0 0
Eastern Shore Northampton Cape charles 3.0 NA
Eastern Shore Northampton Eastville 2.7 1.8
Eastern Shore Northampton Nassawaddox 0.3 0.3
Virginia Beach Virginia Beach Pungo 1 6.2 0.9
Piedmont Amelia Field 1 NA NA
Piedmont Hanover Farm 1 6.3 0.0
Piedmont Hanover Haynes NA NA
Northern Neck Westmoreland Field 1 NA NA
Northern Neck Westmoreland Field 2 NA NA
Shenandoah Valley Rappahannock Field 1 0.6 0.1
Shenandoah Valley Page Field 1 0.2 0.1
Shenandoah Valley Frederick Farm 1 6.1 0
Shenandoah Valley Frederick Farm 2 28.3 NA
Shenandoah Valley Rockingham Farm 1 3.4 NA
Shenandoah Valley Rockingham Farm 2 NA NA
New River Valley Montgomery KC 1.3 0
New River Valley Montgomery KO1 18.0 0
New River Valley Montgomery KO2 28.3 0
New River Valley Montgomery WF1 6.8 NA
New River Valley Montgomery WF2 1.3 NA
New River Valley Montgomery WF3 6.7 NA
New River Valley Montgomery WS1 8.8 NA
New River Valley Montgomery WS2 0.0 NA
New River Valley Montgomery WS3 4.5 NA
Southwest Carroll 0.3 0.5

Midsummer peanut updates for Virginia

According with the FSA, 26,323 acres of peanut were planted this year in Virginia; and the crop progresses well so far. The early May planted peanuts are getting close to the full seed growth stage (two pictures of peanut pods and seed are provided here)

Peanut pod and seed at full seed stage.

Peanut plants and pods on Aug-7-17 and planted in early May.

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However, in some sandy fields plants have become yellowish lately. It is difficult to guess the reason for the yellow color. It could be caused by poor inoculation or nitrogen fixing due to drought or water standing; manganese deficiency, which is relatively easy to identify (a picture of manganese deficiency is provided here)

Peanut leaves with manganese deficiency.

; but also acidic soils, which are predominant in south-eastern Virginia. Soil pH directly affects plant growth through its effects on the availability of all nutrients. For example, soils with pH less than 6 may become deficient in calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and molybdenum. Molybdenum is essential in biological nitrogen fixation and, even though the nodule numbers may seem sufficient, the result, tissue nitrogen content, may be limited.  Gypsum does not alter soil pH; only lime can be used for that, and dolomitic limestone is the desired product as it provides calcium and magnesium. The traditional recommended pH range for peanut land is 5.8 to 6.2, but more towards 6.2 when Virginia-type peanuts are planted. In addition, limestone moves very slowly into the soil, therefore applying limestone early in the planting process and tilling it into the root zone (top 7 inches) is important. Rainfall amount, application of fertilizers containing ammonium or urea, sulfur containing ingredients, and decomposition of organic matter (previous crop residue) also adds to soil acidity. Soil sampling should be taken in the fall and, if the test results indicate a need for limestone, for best results it should be applied in the fall or winter months. If applied just prior to planting and soil is dry, lime will have little effect on the pH.

Going back to the yellow plant color, the best approach for knowing and not just guessing what causes it is to take soil and tissue samples and send to a laboratory for determining the soil pH and tissue nutrient content. The table below shows the sufficiency levels for macro and micronutrients of the peanut vines. It is recommended that 50 whole shoots throughout the field, or problematic areas, should be combined in one sample prior to or at bloom stage.

Macronutrients

%

Micronutrients

ppm

Nitrogen (N) 3.50-4.50 Iron (Fe) 60-300
Phosphorus (P) 0.25-0.50 Manganese (Mn) 60-350
Potassium (K) 1.70-3.00 Boron (B) 25-60
Calcium (Ca) 1.25-2.00 Copper (Cu) 5-20
Magnesium (Mg) 0.30-0.80 Zinc (Zn) 25-60
Sulfur (S) 0.20-0.35 Molybdenum (Mo) 0.10-5.00

 

Manganese (1 pound per acre) and boron (up to 0.5 pounds per acre) are regular applications in peanut production during summer, but nitrogen can also be applied if the tissue analysis indicates the need. Rate of 60 to 120 pounds per acre elemental nitrogen (or 285 to 571 pounds per acre of ammonium sulfate) can be applied, depending on the test results; and it is worth applying even at this time (August). After all, there are two more months of peanut growth. Increasingly more fields seem to require potash applications. Peanut is efficient at scavenging phosphorus and potassium left in the soil from previous crops, but for some reason potassium is getting slim each year. An application of 100 pounds per acre of potash may correct that deficiency.

Knowing the history of each field for yield and crop growth, can help to anticipate where nutritional problems may occur and allow for preventive measures even before symptoms are visible. Drone technology can be used to derive soil maps for pH, moisture and yield of each crop in rotation, so that precise locations within a field where problematic spots exist can be known and independently managed using the variable rate technology (VRT). The VRT consists of a control system on an application equipment, planters, sprayers, and spreaders, which allows grower to achieve site-specific application rates of inputs. To work, prescription maps need to be generated and uploaded to the computer within the machine cab that has the VRT. Drones can be used to generated these maps. For example, the last picture in this story shows an image of the soil moisture distribution of a field at the Tidewater AREC. The image was taken before peanut planting with an infra-red camera on a drone; the drone purchased not long ago with funding from the Virginia Peanut Board, the shellers, and Virginia Crop Improvement Association. In the image, the darker the blue the more soil water was available; green color indicated dryer soil sections with the driest spots being colored in yellow and red and located in the patches adjacent to the field.

Pre-plant field image taken with an infra-red camera from a drone showing soil moisture distribution.

Potential applications of this technology can help growers to use variable seeding rates and depths depending on the available soil moisture at planting, and monitor irrigation needs throughout the growing season.

Sweet corn sampling in VA – Moth trap counts for week of July 31

Corn earworm larva in Bt sweet corn in Page County, VA. Photo by Kenner Love, VCE.

Sweet corn farms are being monitored around Virginia for corn earworm and fall armyworm.  Moth Trap Catch Data are being recorded by:  Katlyn Catron  (Montgomery Co.); Jason Cooper (Rockingham Co.); Ursula Deitch (Northampton Co.); Helene Doughty (Accomack Co. & Virginia Beach); Kenner Love (Rappahannock Co.); Laura Maxey Nay (Hanover Co.); Steve Pottorff (Carrol Co.); Stephanie Romelczyk  (Westmoreland Co.); Laura Siegle (Amelia Co.); Rebekah Slabach (Halifax Co.); and Mark Sutphin (Frederick Co.).

This week we observed a general drop off in corn earworm moth catch at many locations, but still enough moth flight activity to warrant frequent spraying in many locations such as the Bridge Tunnel in Northampton County, Virginia Beach, Frederick Co., and Hanover Co.   We still have not seen very many  fall armyworm moths yet. For corn earworm, moth trap catch of less than 1 per night means  low pest pressure and sweet corn sprays can probably be spaced 5-6 days apart during silking.  However, a catch of >1 or >13 moths per night means moderate and high pest pressure, respectively, and a more frequent spray interval (every 3 or 2 days) is justified.  Here are the trap catch results (moths per night) for several locations around Virginia for this week (note we do not have data for all locations):

Week of July 31 (avg)
Region County Field CEW/night FAW/night
Eastern Shore Accomack ESAREC – cemetery 6.3 0.1
Eastern Shore Accomack ESAREC – woods 0.0 NA
Eastern Shore Accomack ESAREC – sweet corn 1.1 0.1
Eastern Shore Northampton Bridge Tunnel 15.1 NA
Eastern Shore Northampton Capeville 1 0.6 0
Eastern Shore Northampton Cape charles 2.4 NA
Eastern Shore Northampton Eastville 2.3 1
Eastern Shore Northampton Nassawaddox 0.4 1
Virginia Beach Virginia Beach Pungo 1 11.6 0.3
Piedmont Amelia Field 1 NA NA
Piedmont Hanover Farm 1 7.8 0.0
Piedmont Hanover Haynes 6.9 0.0
Northern Neck Westmoreland Field 1 3.0 0
Northern Neck Westmoreland Field 2 NA NA
Shenandoah Valley Rappahannock Field 1 0.6 0.1
Shenandoah Valley Page Field 1 0.2 0.1
Shenandoah Valley Frederick Farm 1 1.4 0.9
Shenandoah Valley Frederick Farm 2 9.1 NA
Shenandoah Valley Rockingham Farm 1 NA NA
Shenandoah Valley Rockingham Farm 2 NA NA
New River Valley Montgomery KC 0.1 0
New River Valley Montgomery KO1 3.0 0
New River Valley Montgomery KO2 1.7 0
New River Valley Montgomery WF1 2.9 NA
New River Valley Montgomery WF2 1.1 NA
New River Valley Montgomery WF3 2.0 NA
New River Valley Montgomery WS1 2.3 NA
New River Valley Montgomery WS2 2.0 NA
New River Valley Montgomery WS3 1.7 NA