Greetings, For the last couple of years we have experienced the kind of weather patterns during the apple bloom and post-bloom periods that are conducive to protracted movement of plum curculio into orchards from their overwintering habitat in adjacent woodlands. While many plum curculio may move into orchards more synchronously in years when conditions are warm and dry during the bloom, therefore resulting in good control when effective products are applied at petal fall, in a year like 2016, this pest may need to be targeted with additional sprays after petal fall, especially in orchards where pressure has been high in recent years. The warming pattern forecasted for next week may well result in increased curculio movement. In the northern regions of Virginia, next week will also bring the critical 250DD post-biofix timing for codling moth and in the central and southern regions, codling moth degree days will approach the 550 mark, at which the second half of first brood codling moth is targeted. Consequently, if both species require management at this time, the insecticides that are considered effective against both include, in alphabetical order, Assail, Calypso, Imidan and Imidan + Lannate. In our Spray Bulletin for Commercial Tree Fruit Growers, we rate Avaunt quite strongly against plum curculio but somewhat less so for codling moth. Other products, such as many of the pyrethroids, are also rated well against both, as are some of the combination products that contain a pyrethroid and another active ingredient, such as Voliam Xpress or Endigo, although as always, we caution against using these broad-spectrum materials too early and/or too often in the post-bloom period, since secondary pest issues may result.
Greetings, Research in the early 1970’s by Virginia Tech entomologist, Marvin Bobb, showed that white peach scale populations in the Charlottesville area produced first generation crawlers that were present during May. Second generation crawlers were found through July and those of the third generation were present from late August through September. The cool and wet conditions that have prevailed for much of April have likely slowed the rate of white peach scale egg hatch and nymphal development this year, so stone fruit orchards with a history of this pest can be treated for first generation crawlers now. Recommended materials for managing this pest include, in alphabetical order, Centaur, Diazinon, Esteem, Lannate, and Movento.
“Biofix” is the calendar date on which the first sustained capture of insects emerging from the overwintering generation occurs. At the Winchester research center, we establish biofix for three key moth pests of peaches and/or apples:
- oriental fruit moth.
- codling moth.
- tufted apple budmoth.
Prior to the onset of moth emergence and flight each spring, traps baited with the pheromone lure for each species are deployed in research center orchards and captures are recorded daily. When one or more moths are captured in each of at least two of three traps over at least three consecutive evenings, biofix is set as the first day on which these sustained captures occurred.
Starting on the biofix date, daily heat until accumulations (“degree-days” or “DD”) are calculated based on known developmental threshold temperatures for each species. Accumulated degree-days are used with models that predict the rate of development of eggs and the hatch of larvae for each species. Critical points in the development of each generation of each species are predicted by the model, so that tree fruit growers can time their control measures optimally.
In combination, determining the biofix date and initiating degree-day models based on biofix each year enable best management practices regardless of the potentially large annual variations in the environmental conditions that affect pest emergence and developmental rate. The accompanying table illustrates the annual variations in biofix dates for oriental fruit moth, codling moth, and tufted apple budmoth at the Winchester research center since 2000.
|Year||Oriental Fruit Moth||Codling Moth||Tufted Apple Budmoth|
|2000||April 1||April 29||April 29|
|2001||April 7||April 30||May 4|
|2002||March 30||April 27||May 5|
|2003||April 14||May 3||May 12|
|2004||April 16||April 30||May 6|
|2005||April 11||May 8||May 8|
|2006||April 7||April 23||May 1|
|2007||April 20||April 30||May 10|
|2008||April 10||April 25||May 6|
|2009||April 17||May 2||May 20|
|2010||April 5||April 29||May 13|
|2011||April 18||April 26||May 9|
|2012||March 20||April 14||April 29|
|2013||April 11||May 2||May 16|
|2014||April 12||May 8||May 12|
|2015||April 18||May 4||May 16|
|2016||April 11||April 25||May 2|
Greetings, The Northeastern IPM Center and the BMSB IPM Working Group have created a survey to assess the issue with brown marmorated stink bug invasion of homes and businesses in the fall and winter and how folks have responded to it. Regardless of whether or to what extend you have experienced this issue in past years, your feedback would be very helpful and most appreciated. The survey can be found at BMSB homeowner/business owner survey
On July 16, 2015 the EPA approved a Section 18 Emergency Exemption for use of the insecticide, dinotefuran, against brown marmorated stink bug in pome and stone fruit crops in Virginia. The two products included in this exemption are Venom Insecticide and Scorpion 35SL Insecticide. Per application, Venom can be used at rates between 4.0 and 6.75 oz of product (0.179 to 0.302 lb active ingredient) per acre and Scorpion at 8.0 to 12.0 fl oz of product (0.203 to 0.304 lb active ingredient) per acre. Restrictions include a maximum of two applications, a seasonal maximum of 0.608 lb active ingredient per acre (regardless of product used), and a minimum 7-day application interval. The restricted entry interval for both products is 12-hours and a 3-day pre-harvest interval must be observed for both. This compound is highly toxic to bees. This Section 18 for use of dinotefuran in Virginia pome and stone fruit expires on October 15, 2015.
On April 6, 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency approved a Section 18 Emergency Exemption for use of the bifenthrin-based products, Brigade WSB, Bifenture EC, and Bifenture 10DF against brown marmorated stink bug in apples, peaches, and nectarines in Virginia. Please note that this exemption applies only to the products mentioned above. Applications must be made only during the post-bloom period and by ground only, at a rate of 0.08 to 0.2 lb active ingredient (a.i.) per acre, with not more than 0.5 lb a.i. per acre per season. These application rates equate to 5.12 – 12.8 fl oz of Bifenture EC, 12.8 – 32.0 oz of Bifenture 10DF, and 12.8 – 32.0 oz of Brigade WSB per acre, and seasonal maximums of 32 fl oz of Bifenture EC, 80 oz of Bifenture 10DF, or 72 oz of Brigade WSB. Multiple applications may be made per season, at a minimum interval of 30 days. The REI is 12 hours and the PHI is 14 days. This insecticide is extremely toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates and bees, and all precautions to avoid these exposures must be observed. Specifically, to help minimize exposure to pollinators, the following statement about the application timing must be observed, “Do not apply this product until after petal fall”. Since bifenthrin is considered one of the strongest insecticides against brown marmorated stink bug but can be disruptive to natural enemies of secondary pests, we recommend its use later in the season for apples, when stink bug populations are highest. In peaches and nectarines, its benefits might be best as fruit approach maturity, but outside of the 14 day PHI. This Emergency Exemption expires on October 15, 2015.
Greetings, On June 20 the Environmental Protection Agency approved a Section 18 Emergency Exemption for use of the bifenthrin-based products, Brigade WSB, Bifenture EC, and Bifenture 10DF against brown marmorated stink bug in apples, peaches, and nectarines in Virginia. Please note that this exemption applies only to the products mentioned above. Applications must be made by ground only, at a rate of 0.08 to 0.2 lb active ingredient (a.i.) per acre, with not more than 0.5 lb a.I. per acre per season. These rates equate to 5.12 – 12.8 fl oz of Bifenture EC, 12.8 – 32.0 oz of Bifenture 10DF, and 12.8 – 32.0 oz of Brigade WSB per acre. Do not apply more than 32 fl oz of Bifenture EC, 80 oz of Bifenture 10DF, or 72 oz of Brigade WSB per acre per season. Multiple applications may be made per season, at a minimum interval of 30 days. The REI is 12 hours and the PHI is 14 days. This insecticide is extremely toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates and bees, and all precautions to avoid these exposures must be observed. This Emergency Exemption expires on October 15, 2014.
Greetings, As one component of the multi-state BMSB award from USDA, the Northeastern IPM Center has developed a short survey about your experiences with and response to BMSB. This is intended to take the pulse of the specialty crop stakeholder community at this point in our collective efforts to combat BMSB. I have copied the message from the NEIPM Center below, with the link to the on-line survey. Your participation would be very helpful. Until next time, best wishes – Chris
Got stink bugs? We need your help! We’re surveying growers to assess the impact of BMSB on crops and gather information that will help us defeat this pest. Receive a free Guide to Stink Bugs* if you complete the 10-minute BMSB survey (https://cornell.qualtrics.com/SE/?SID=SV_5ssnjXLNhvp6v1H). Your participation will help us to help you Stop BMSB! The survey will be available until June 30th.
Thank you from the Outreach Team for “StopBMSB,” a project focused on the biology, ecology, and management of the brown marmorated stink bug. For more info: StopBMSB.org
Greetings, After some discussion, we have elected to forego having reminders of Entomology updates for degree-day accumulations, management recommendations, and pheromone trap data sent automatically via e-mail notification to those on our e-mail recipient list. We chose this option since we felt that three e-mail notifications per week through most of the growing season may be overkill. Consequently, we ask that users of this information simply bookmark the locations of relevance to them and visit them at your convenience. As we have done in previous years, we are updating degree-days, predicted egg-hatch and management recommendations for OFM, CM and TABM twice weekly, on Monday and Thursday. Data for OFM and CM are provided for Winchester, Timberville, Nelson county, Rappahannock county, and Patrick/Carroll counties. Data for TABM are provided for Winchester. Pheromone trap data from the Winchester research station are updated on Wednesdays.
On April 29, the Environmental Protection Agency approved a Section 18 Emergency Exemption authorizing use of dinotefuran against brown marmorated stink bug in pome and stone fruit in VA, WV, MD and DE (some other eastern States to follow) in the 2014 growing season. Venom Insecticide can be used at rates of 4.0 – 6.75 oz/acre and Scorpion 35SL Insecticide at 8.0 – 12.0 fl oz/acre. A maximum of two applications per season is permitted (not to exceed 0.608 lb/a.i./acre/season). These products have a 12-hour REI and a 3-day PHI in pome and stone fruit crops. Dinotefuran is highly toxic to bees and cannot be used until after petal-fall. Given its efficacy against brown marmorated stink bug and its short PHI, we recommend its use later in the growing season, in the weeks and days preceding harvest. This Section 18 expires on October 15, 2014.