Category Archives: Commodity

Soybean Fungicide Advisory – August 3, 2019

For soybean that is at or near the beginning pod (R3) stage, it is time to consider whether or not a fungicide application is needed to control foliar diseases and protect yield. The Virginia soybean fungicide advisory indicates that disease risk is variable across the state. Fields with moderate risk should be scouted since foliar diseases will not be an issue in every field every year.  Keep in mind that other risk factors also contribute to disease severity and yield loss to fungal diseases. High risk fields include those where susceptible soybean varieties are planted, there is a recent history of soybean foliar diseases, and/or rotations out of soybean are short or soybean is planted continuously over several years. If based on the soybean fungicide advisory or other factors you decide to apply a fungicide, applications are generally the most effective when applied between R3 and R4 stages (no later than R5). The most recent Soybean Fungicide Efficacy Table can be downloaded from the Crop Protection Network website. Instructions on how to use the Virginia soybean fungicide advisory can be found in the July 19 blog post. A summary of disease risk and spray recommendations for different locations in Virginia can be found below.

Region of VirginiaLocation of weather stationSoybean disease riskRecommendation
Eastern ShorePainterHighSpray
SoutheasternSuffolkLow to moderateDon’t spray
SoutheasternVirginia BeachModerateScout
Northern NeckWarsawModerate to highScout
CentralBlackstone LowDon’t spray
NorthernMiddleburgModerate to highScout
NorthernShenandoahModerate to highScout
NorthernWinchesterLow to moderateDon’t spray
WesternCritzHighSpray
WesternBlacksburgModerateScout
WesternGlade SpringHighSpray

For detailed daily advisories, select the location closest to your field and download the corresponding file here:

If you have any questions, feel free to contact Dr. Hillary Mehl (hlmehl@vt.edu).

Soybean Fungicide Advisory – July 25, 2019

For soybean that is at or near the beginning pod (R3) stage, it is time to consider whether or not a fungicide application is needed to control foliar diseases and protect yield. The Virginia soybean fungicide advisory indicates that disease risk is moderate to high in most locations. Fields with moderate risk should be scouted since foliar diseases will not be an issue in every field every year.  Keep in mind that other risk factors also contribute to disease severity and yield loss to fungal diseases. High risk fields include those where susceptible soybean varieties are planted, there is a recent history of soybean foliar diseases, and/or rotations out of soybean are short or soybean is planted continuously over several years. If based on the soybean fungicide advisory or other factors you decide to apply a fungicide, applications are generally the most effective when applied between R3 and R4 stages (no later than R5). The most recent Soybean Fungicide Efficacy Table and instructions on how to use the Virginia soybean fungicide advisory can be found in last week’s blog post. A summary of disease risk and spray recommendations for different locations in Virginia can be found below.

Region of Virginia Location of weather station Soybean disease risk Recommendation
Eastern Shore Painter High Spray
Southeastern Suffolk Moderate Scout
Southeastern Virginia Beach Moderate Scout
Northern Neck Warsaw Moderate to high Scout
Central Blackstone Low to moderate Don’t spray
Northern Middleburg Moderate to high Scout
Northern Shenandoah High Spray
Northern Winchester Moderate Scout
Western Critz High Spray
Western Blacksburg High Spray
Western Glade Spring High Spray

For detailed daily advisories, select the location closest to your field and download the corresponding file here:

Glade_Spring_soyadv_25Jul2019

Middleburg_soyadv_25Jul2019

Painter_soyadv_25Jul2019

Shenandoah_soyadv_25Jul2019

Suffolk_soyadv_25Jul2019

VA_Beach_soyadv_25Jul2019

Warsaw_soyadv_25Jul2019

Winchester_soyadv_25Jul2019

Blacksburg_soyadv_25Jul2019

Blackstone_soyadv_25Jul2019

Critz_soyadv_25Jul2019

If you have any questions, feel free to contact Dr. Hillary Mehl (hlmehl@vt.edu).

Peanut Disease Update – July 25, 2019

As August approaches, now is the time to be scouting peanuts for leaf spot and soilborne diseases and making timely fungicide applications. Calendar-based or advisory-based spray programs can be followed, but be sure to make your fungicide applications before rainy weather makes it difficult to get into fields. Many of our leaf spot outbreaks over the past couple of years were due to extended periods of rainfall and delayed fungicide applications. Cooler, wet weather over the past several days has increased the risk for Sclerotinia blight. In our research plots at the Tidewater AREC, we found small amounts of late leaf spot, Sclerotinia blight, and southern stem rot this week. The leaf spot and Sclerotinia blight advisories, which  can be found on the Peanut Cotton Infonet website, indicate disease risk is currently high. For fungicide recommendations, contact your county extension agent or Dr. Hillary Mehl (hlmehl@vt.edu).

Plant bug / bollworm update for VA cotton

The much needed rain earlier this week also heralded the start of the moth flight in southeastern VA. Both eggs and adult moths are being picked up by scouting teams. So far, only a handful of fields are over recommended thresholds. I recommend scouting 2-gene cotton (Bollgard II, Widestrike, Twinlink) for eggs and applying Prevathon or Besiege when you find 25 or more per 100 terminals and/or leaves. If you planted 3-gene cotton, you are likely protected. We have measured very little benefit to spraying Widestrike 3, Bollgard III, and Twinlink Plus varieties for bollworm. In these varieties, finding 3 or more live second-stage larvae in one trip (or two worms in two consecutive trips, or one worm in three consecutive trips) triggers an application.

Other insecticides can control bollworm in cotton, but timing is critical. If you are using a pyrethroid, for example, target small worms. No product will clean up a problem field once worms are inside bolls.

Our team, lead by PhD student Seth Dorman, ANR Agent Josh Holland, and Dr. Sean Malone are scouting fields this week for lygus. Few problems fields were detected in southern counties today. However, fields were observed over recommended thresholds. At this point, many people have sprayed. Some may need to spray again and some may not. The only way to know is to scout.

Northern counties will be scouted this Friday and I will update the blog with our findings.

As always, you can reach out to me with your questions and concerns.

 

Soybean Fungicide Advisory – July 19, 2019

Based on research conducted since 2014, we have developed a disease favorable day threshold for predicting when a fungicide application in soybean will be economical. The favorable day threshold is based on daily average temperature and hours of high relative humidity, and these parameters are being monitored from weather stations located at Virginia Tech Agricultural Research and Extension Centers (AREC) throughout the state. We have determined that weather conditions approximately three weeks prior to the beginning pod (R3) stage of the soybean crop are the most critical for determining if disease will impact yield and if a foliar fungicide application will be economical. Fungicide recommendations for different locations throughout Virginia can be downloaded below. To use the advisory, follow these steps:

1) Identify the weather station (AREC) closest to your field. A map of the AREC locations can be found here.

2) Download the PDF for your location below.

Blacksburg_soyadv_18Jul2019

Blackstone_soyadv_18Jul2019

Critz_soyadv_18Jul2019

Glade_Spring_soyadv_18Jul2019

Middleburg_soyadv_18Jul2019

Painter_soyadv_18Jul2019

Shenandoah_soyadv_18Jul2019

Suffolk_soyadv_18Jul2019

Warsaw_soyadv_18Jul2019

Winchester_soyadv_18Jul2019

VA_Beach_soyadv_18Jul2019

3) Under the “date” column, find the date that corresponds to approximately when your soybean crop has reached or will reach the R3 (beginning pod) stage).

4) In the row that corresponds to your R3 date, determine if disease risk is low, moderate, or high based on the favorable day threshold.

5) The last column indicates if a spray is recommended based on your R3 date.

Keep in mind that other risk factors also contribute to disease severity and yield loss to fungal diseases. High risk fields include those where susceptible soybean varieties are planted, there is a recent history of soybean foliar diseases, and/or rotations out of soybean are short or soybean is planted continuously over several years. If based on the soybean fungicide advisory or other factors you decide to apply a fungicide, applications are generally the most effective when applied between R3 and R4 stages (no later than R5). The most recent Soybean Fungicide Efficacy Table can be downloaded below.

Soybean Fungicide efficacy table_2019_final

If you have any questions, feel free to contact Dr. Hillary Mehl (hlmehl@vt.edu).

 

 

2019 Virginia Ag Expo Comes to Charity Hill Farms in Caroline County

The Virginia Ag Expo is the largest agricultural field day held in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As an educational, marketing and social event, farmers and agribusiness look forward to the Virginia Ag Expo each year. This year’s event will be held at Charity Hill Farm in Ruther Glen, VA on August 1st.

Charity Hill Farm is an 800-acre farm owned and operated by The Smith Family in Caroline County.  Its active members are Steve and Cindy Smith and their son Chris. The farm has been in the Smith family for six generations and is a certified Virginia Century Farm.  Originally known as Smith Dairy Farm, the dairy cows were sold in 2006, and the operation began its transition to beef cattle with the help of the Smith’s daughter, Kendal, who is now a large animal veterinarian in Nebraska.  Over the last 8 years, the Smiths have focused on growing and perfecting their 200 head beef herd, and Chris began retailing their BQA Certified, USDA inspected beef directly to the consumer in 2017.  The Smiths additionally farm 1,200 acres of grain crops in Caroline and Spotsylvania counties, 150 acres of hay and 55 acres of managed timber. Agritourism events are also hosted at Charity Hill, and they work to promote conservation initiatives. The Smiths are proud to have won the 2010 Hanover/Caroline Soil and Water Conservation District and York River Basin Clean Water Farm Awards.

Breakfast and lunch will be provided at the Ag Expo by Virginia food vendors.  Attendees will be able to eat any time from 7:30 AM to 2:00 PM.

Over 150 exhibitors and sponsors will have on display all of the most up to date equipment, goods and services for agricultural producers and property owners no matter how large or small.  Field tours will also be presented by many of Virginia’s top agricultural researchers, Extension Agents, and NRCS personnel.

The Virginia Ag Expo is sponsored by the Virginia Grains Producers Association and the Virginia Soybean Association, in cooperation with the Virginia Cooperative Extension Service.

Location: Charity Hill Farm, 9482 Golansville Rd, Ruther Glen, VA 22546

 

‘Walton’ a New High-Oleic Virginia-Type Peanut

Early this year, ‘Walton’ peanut was jointly released by Virginia Tech and the University of Florida. Walton is a Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) cultivar with similar good agronomic performance when compared with Bailey, Emery, and Bailey II under “normal” production (Table 1), but with superior performance than these cultivars under extreme water deficit conditions.  Seeds are elongated in shape and seed testa color is light pink to pink.  It has dark green foliage; an intermediate growth habit and the main stem is not distinguishable from the lateral branches.  Walton is a high-oleic cultivar with maturity similar to Virginia-type cultivars developed for the VC region. Breeder seed is being increased at the University of Florida in 2019, and more will be produced next year at the Tidewater AREC and in Florida. For commercial production, seed will become available at the earliest in 2021.

Table 1. Results of the Peanut Variety and Quality and Evaluation multi-state (VA, NC, SC), multi-location (5), multi-year (4) (2015-2018)

Variety Yield (lb/A) Crop value ($/A)
Walton 5334 ab 940.0 a
Bailey 5243 abc 920.5 ab
Bailey II 5515 a 978.1 a
Emery 5048 bc 892.5 abc
Sullivan 4876 c 831.6 bc
Wynne 4859 c 826.4 c
Mean 5146 898.2
P>F 0.0128 0.0072

More information it can be found here Walton’ a High Oleic Virginia-type Peanut. Walton will be presented at the VA Peanut Tour on July 30th, at Tidewater AREC.

The value of scouting for plant bugs

The entomology program recognizes the logistic difficulty in scouting. We know that you have to cover a large acreage in a limited amount of time, you manage multiple crops, and some weeks, frankly, you would rather spend the time with your family. We get it.

So, let’s chat about how to scout cotton for plant bugs, and the amount of money that it will make you, in the fewest possible bullet points:

  1. Decisions can be quick and easy – if scouting multiple locations in a field (either by quadrant or on the diagonal) results in numbers over threshold (8 per 100 sweep or 2-4 per beat sheet sample), spray the field. Likewise, if you are seeing consistently below threshold numbers, don’t spray. The only scenario where more time is warranted is when you capture near-threshold numbers in multiple spots. In this scenario, you must decide: 1) how much yield you want out of this field, 2) whether you have time to revisit this field in 3 to 5 days to scout again, and 3) how spraying right now fits into your schedule. Remember two things: 1) it always pays to spray on threshold, and 2) spraying in this hot, dry year increases your risk of secondary pests with any insecticide application. I favor treating the problem that I have and dealing with the problem that may occur, but this is entirely up to you and your operation. An additional 15 minutes of scouting may be more profitable than spraying an entire field. It’s ultimately your choice.
  2. Any sampling method works. Our data (below) from 2018 show that when you scout with a sweep net, a beat sheet, or both combined, you are profiting over not scouting at all. This is why we are distributing beat sheets free of charge at the Tidewater AREC. The companies that have paid for your beat sheets (Corteva, BASF, and FMC) agree. No one wants you to spend money unnecessarily – especially in this difficult time.

Figure 1. Comparison, in terms of lint yield, of different sampling methods for tarnished plant bug (sweep net, drop cloth, and sweep net until 2nd week of bloom combined with drop cloth after) and different thresholds (low, medium or recommended, high, and very high). Favoring the low threshold (1 per drop cloth sample) was profitable when using a drop cloth alone, but this did not make money over using a medium threshold in the combined method. Regardless, you make money if you sample and spray by any method. Not every Virginia field will experience this high pressure.

 

 

 

Table 1.  Net economic returns (per hectare) for threshold trial in 2018 above the untreated control. Cotton was priced at $0.77 per acre for 2018; nitrogen (32-0-0) was priced at $49.18/acre (120.0 lb/acre); bifenthrin (6.4 oz) was priced at $2.90/acre; acephate (8 oz) was priced at $3.12/acre; sulfoxaflor (2.25 oz) was priced at $13.80/acre; thiamethoxam (2 oz) was priced at $15.61/acre; chlorantraniliprole (27 oz) was priced at $26.35/acre

 

 

 

 

 

 

As always, best wishes for a profitable 2019. Please reach out to Sally or myself if you have questions or concerns. I hope that you have the opportunity to spend this weekend with the people and activities that you value most. Happy 4th y’all!

Plant bugs in cotton update

Plant bug populations have been spotty, and lower overall than this time last year (click to see map). 10% or fewer of Virginia fields need insecticide applications this week, but, unfortunately, a much higher percentage will end up treated. Before making a decision to spray without scouting consider several things:

  1. Your risk of aphids and spider mites increases, especially if it does not rain soon.
  2. Your risk of subsequent plant bug infestations increases.
  3. You spend money that you did not have to spend.

Spraying for plant bugs at or exceeding threshold will pay off. Keep in mind that sprays during flowering typically yield higher returns. These two Focus on Cotton presentations by NCSU (click here) and VT (click here) will tell you what you need to know about plant bugs in our region (follow links).

If you need help scouting, ANR agents Josh Holland (Southampton) and Elizabeth Pittman (Suffolk) will be hosting scouting clinics in July. More information coming soon. Beat sheets are available to you free of charge at these events and at the Taylor lab at the Tidewater AREC. Stop by anytime Monday through Friday 8 am – 4 pm. We are closed next Thursday and Friday.

A big thank you to FMC, BASF, and Corteva for sponsoring this round of beat sheets!!

A big thank you to Josh Holland for his help scouting this week!

Click this link for interactive map with insect density and square retention data (click points for summary data).