An insecticide from Syngenta, called Minecto Pro, is now labeled for use in pome and stone fruit in Virginia. This pre-mixture product contains cyantraniliprole, which has strong activity against moth larvae and a range of other pests, and the miticide, abamectin. Cyantraniliprole and abamectin are the active ingredients in Exirel and Agri-Mek, respectively. The product is toxic to bees, therefore cannot be used until petal-fall or later and has additional label language related to this issue. In pome and stone fruit, its rate range is 8-12 fl oz/acre, depending on the pest(s) targeted. It is labeled for use against moth larvae, spider and rust mites, pear psylla, rosy apple aphid, black cherry aphid, European apple sawfly, spotted wing drosophila, and a number of others. Because it contains abamectin for mites, it is an early-season product that must be applied with an adjuvant for UV-protection and before the foliage hardens. No more than 2 sequential applications are allowed per season, with a minimum 21-day reapplication interval and a seasonal maximum of 24 fl oz/acre. It has a 12-hour REI and a preharvest interval of 28 days in pome fruit and 21 days in stone fruit. See the label at the following link, which also contains information about tank-mixing with some fungicides and other important information. http://www.cdms.net/ldat/ldDIT000.pdf
Another pre-mixed product from Syngenta, Voliam Xpress, has been given a new trade name, Besiege. It has the same concentration of the active ingredients, chlorantraniliprole or Altacor, and lambda-cyhalothrin, or Warrior and will be sold at a reduced price compared with its previous version.
Finally, we anticipate word from EPA soon about its decision regarding the fate of chlorpyrifos (Lorsban and others). Renewal applications for the Section 18 Emergency Exemptions for bifenthrin and dinotefuran against brown marmorated stink bug in pome and stone fruit have been submitted to the EPA and I will keep you posted about those.
Until next time, best wishes.
Bayer CropScience announced today that EPA will proceed with its decision to cancel the registration of the insecticide, Belt, which has been used to manage moth larvae in tree fruit systems such as codling moth, oriental fruit moth, and leafrollers. The decision does allow for existing stocks to be sold and used by growers, although there is no timeline or deadline provided for these activities. Any further information regarding this decision will be posted as it is available.
On June 16, 2016 the EPA approved a Section 18 Emergency Exemption for use of the insecticide, dinotefuran, against brown marmorated stink bug in pome and stone fruit crops in Virginia. The two products included in this exemption are Venom Insecticide and Scorpion 35SL Insecticide. Per application, Venom can be used at rates between 4.0 and 6.75 oz of product (0.179 to 0.302 lb active ingredient) per acre and Scorpion at 8.0 to 12.0 fl oz of product (0.203 to 0.304 lb active ingredient) per acre. Restrictions include a maximum of two applications, a seasonal maximum of 0.608 lb active ingredient per acre (regardless of product used), and a minimum 7-day application interval. The restricted entry interval for both products is 12-hours and a 3-day pre-harvest interval must be observed for both. This compound is highly toxic to bees. This Section 18 for use of dinotefuran in Virginia pome and stone fruit expires on October 15, 2016.
Greetings, We have just completed a guidance document for orchard crop growers that summarizes our current knowledge about relevant aspects of brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) biology, monitoring, and management. This document was developed following a recommendation from the Stakeholder Advisory Panel for the Specialty Crops Research Initiative (SCRI) award for BMSB and is one of several documents that have or will be produced for the different specialty crop groups of concern. To view this document, see: http://www.stopbmsb.org/where-is-bmsb/crop-by-crop/orchard-crops/ on the StopBMSB website. We hope this will be of value to you and welcome your feedback about it.
On May 31, 2016, the Environmental Protection Agency approved a Section 18 Emergency Exemption for use of the bifenthrin-based products, Brigade WSB, Bifenture EC, and Bifenture 10DF against brown marmorated stink bug in apples, peaches, and nectarines in Virginia. This exemption applies only to the products mentioned above. These and other bifenthrin-based insecticides have a full Section 3 label for use in pears in Virginia. The requirements of this Section 18 are that applications must be made only during the post-bloom period and by ground only, at a rate of 0.08 to 0.2 lb active ingredient (a.i.) per acre, with not more than 0.5 lb a.i. per acre per season. These application rates equate to 5.12 – 12.8 fl oz of Bifenture EC, 12.8 – 32.0 oz of Bifenture 10DF, and 12.8 – 32.0 oz of Brigade WSB per acre, and seasonal maximums of 32 fl oz of Bifenture EC, 80 oz of Bifenture 10DF, or 72 oz of Brigade WSB. Multiple applications may be made per season, at a minimum re-treatment interval of 30 days. The REI is 12 hours and the PHI is 14 days. This insecticide is extremely toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates and bees, and all precautions to avoid these exposures must be observed. Specifically, to help minimize exposure to pollinators, the following statement about the application timing must be observed, “Do not apply this product until after petal fall”. Since bifenthrin is considered one of the strongest insecticides against brown marmorated stink bug but can be disruptive to natural enemies of secondary pests, we recommend its use later in the season for apples, when stink bug populations are highest. In peaches and nectarines, its benefits might be best as fruit approach maturity, but outside of the 14-day PHI. This Emergency Exemption expires on October 15, 2016.
Greetings, For the last couple of years we have experienced the kind of weather patterns during the apple bloom and post-bloom periods that are conducive to protracted movement of plum curculio into orchards from their overwintering habitat in adjacent woodlands. While many plum curculio may move into orchards more synchronously in years when conditions are warm and dry during the bloom, therefore resulting in good control when effective products are applied at petal fall, in a year like 2016, this pest may need to be targeted with additional sprays after petal fall, especially in orchards where pressure has been high in recent years. The warming pattern forecasted for next week may well result in increased curculio movement. In the northern regions of Virginia, next week will also bring the critical 250DD post-biofix timing for codling moth and in the central and southern regions, codling moth degree days will approach the 550 mark, at which the second half of first brood codling moth is targeted. Consequently, if both species require management at this time, the insecticides that are considered effective against both include, in alphabetical order, Assail, Calypso, Imidan and Imidan + Lannate. In our Spray Bulletin for Commercial Tree Fruit Growers, we rate Avaunt quite strongly against plum curculio but somewhat less so for codling moth. Other products, such as many of the pyrethroids, are also rated well against both, as are some of the combination products that contain a pyrethroid and another active ingredient, such as Voliam Xpress or Endigo, although as always, we caution against using these broad-spectrum materials too early and/or too often in the post-bloom period, since secondary pest issues may result.
Greetings, Research in the early 1970’s by Virginia Tech entomologist, Marvin Bobb, showed that white peach scale populations in the Charlottesville area produced first generation crawlers that were present during May. Second generation crawlers were found through July and those of the third generation were present from late August through September. The cool and wet conditions that have prevailed for much of April have likely slowed the rate of white peach scale egg hatch and nymphal development this year, so stone fruit orchards with a history of this pest can be treated for first generation crawlers now. Recommended materials for managing this pest include, in alphabetical order, Centaur, Diazinon, Esteem, Lannate, and Movento.
“Biofix” is the calendar date on which the first sustained capture of insects emerging from the overwintering generation occurs. At the Winchester research center, we establish biofix for three key moth pests of peaches and/or apples:
- oriental fruit moth.
- codling moth.
- tufted apple budmoth.
Prior to the onset of moth emergence and flight each spring, traps baited with the pheromone lure for each species are deployed in research center orchards and captures are recorded daily. When one or more moths are captured in each of at least two of three traps over at least three consecutive evenings, biofix is set as the first day on which these sustained captures occurred.
Starting on the biofix date, daily heat until accumulations (“degree-days” or “DD”) are calculated based on known developmental threshold temperatures for each species. Accumulated degree-days are used with models that predict the rate of development of eggs and the hatch of larvae for each species. Critical points in the development of each generation of each species are predicted by the model, so that tree fruit growers can time their control measures optimally.
In combination, determining the biofix date and initiating degree-day models based on biofix each year enable best management practices regardless of the potentially large annual variations in the environmental conditions that affect pest emergence and developmental rate. The accompanying table illustrates the annual variations in biofix dates for oriental fruit moth, codling moth, and tufted apple budmoth at the Winchester research center since 2000.
|Year||Oriental Fruit Moth||Codling Moth||Tufted Apple Budmoth|
|2000||April 1||April 29||April 29|
|2001||April 7||April 30||May 4|
|2002||March 30||April 27||May 5|
|2003||April 14||May 3||May 12|
|2004||April 16||April 30||May 6|
|2005||April 11||May 8||May 8|
|2006||April 7||April 23||May 1|
|2007||April 20||April 30||May 10|
|2008||April 10||April 25||May 6|
|2009||April 17||May 2||May 20|
|2010||April 5||April 29||May 13|
|2011||April 18||April 26||May 9|
|2012||March 20||April 14||April 29|
|2013||April 11||May 2||May 16|
|2014||April 12||May 8||May 12|
|2015||April 18||May 4||May 16|
|2016||April 11||April 25||May 2|