Historical biofix dates for oriental fruit moth, codling moth, and tufted apple budmoth at the Winchester AREC

“Biofix” is the calendar date on which the first sustained capture of insects emerging from the overwintering generation occurs. At the Winchester research center, we establish biofix for three key moth pests of peaches and/or apples:

  1.  oriental fruit moth;
  2.  codling moth;
  3.  tufted apple budmoth.

Prior to the onset of moth emergence and flight each spring, traps baited with the pheromone lure for each species are deployed in research center orchards and captures are recorded daily. When one or more moths are captured in each of at least two of three traps over at least three consecutive evenings, biofix is set as the first day on which these sustained captures occurred.

Starting on the biofix date, daily heat until accumulations (“degree-days” or “DD”) are calculated based on known developmental threshold temperatures for each species. Accumulated degree-days are used with models that predict the rate of development of eggs and the hatch of larvae for each species. Critical points in the development of each generation of each species are predicted by the model, so that tree fruit growers can time their control measures optimally.

In combination, determining the biofix date and initiating degree-day models based on biofix each year enable best management practices regardless of the potentially large annual variations in the environmental conditions that affect pest emergence and developmental rate. The accompanying table illustrates the annual variations in biofix dates for oriental fruit moth, codling moth, and tufted apple budmoth at the Winchester research center since 2000.

Year Oriental Fruit Moth Codling Moth Tufted Apple Budmoth
2000 April 1 April 29 April 29
2001 April 7 April 30 May 4
2002 March 30 April 27 May 5
2003 April 14 May 3 May 12
2004 April 16 April 30 May 6
2005 April 11 May 8 May 8
2006 April 7 April 23 May 1
2007 April 20 April 30 May 10
2008 April 10 April 25 May 6
2009 April 17 May 2 May 20
2010 April 5 April 29 May 13
2011 April 18 April 26 May 9
2012 March 20 April 14 April 29
2013 April 11 May 2 May 16
2014 April 12 May 8 May 12
2015 April 18 May 4 May 16
2016 April 11 April 25 May 2
2017 April 3 April 21 April 29

 

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