Wild Mustard and Wild Radish

This fall I have noticed quite a few fields plagued by wild mustard/wild radish.  These species are difficult to control primarily due to size at burndown time.  Some of the fields I have passed are already knee high and I would suspect very difficult to control now, let alone next spring.  The 7 day weather outlook is showing a warming trend with temperatures peaking near 70 degrees on Saturday.  This would be a good time to get ahead of wild mustard/wild radish.  My first suggestion for cleaning up these field would be Roundup plus 2,4-D.  Although the risk of injuring neighboring plants is less this time of year, it is not absent.  If you do decide to treat with this combination, please pay attention to what susceptible plants may be around.  Below is an article that goes more in depth about management of wild mustard/wild radish I authored for the 2017 Mid-Atlantic Field Crop Weed Management Guide and Virginia Pest Management Guide.  Excerpts similar to this one covering additional weed species can be found in both of the aforementioned publications.  Feel free to contact me with any questions or concerns.

problem-weed-mustard-and-radish

Dicamba Registered for Cotton and Soybean

Last week Monsanto received EPA registration for XtendiMax with Vapor Grip Technology for use on XtendFlex cotton and Roundup Ready 2 Xtend soybean.  Attached is an article authored by Dr. Alan York at NC State pertaining specifically to cotton.  I share Dr. York’s sentiments concerning this technology and will echo these same points at winter meetings.

york-dicamba-article

 

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2016 Soybean Yield Contest

The Virginia Soybean Association in cooperation with Virginia Cooperative Extension would like to announce the 2016 Virginia Soybean Yield Contest. The purpose of the Virginia Soybean Yield Contest is to emphasize and demonstrate the practices necessary to produce maximum economic yields, to recognize those producers who grow high-yielding soybeans, and to gather data on the practices utilized by these outstanding producers. With the help of various seed companies, we reward and promote the achievements of Virginia’s most productive soybean farmers.

There are four Soybean Yield Contest categories: 1) Full-Season, Non-irrigated; 2) Double-Crop, Non-irrigated; and 3) Irrigated (Full-Season or Double-Crop; and 4) Most Efficient Yield (MEY). First, second, and third place winners of the full-season, double-crop, and irrigated contest will be recognized with appropriate trophies or plaques. In addition, cash awards of $200, $100, and $50 will be presented to the first, second, and third place winners in each of these categories. The winner of the MEY contest will receive a plaque declaring him or her the most efficient soybean producer in Virginia for that year.

Printable entry forms and contest details can be obtained from your County Agent or on the Soybean Extension and Research website.

Phomopsis-Seed-Decay

Timely harvest will minimize seed quality problems

The map below shows the amount of rainfall received in Virginia over the last 14 days.  And the weather forecast is calling for more.  While this rain may still help our double-crop soybean, early-planted early-maturing varieties will run the risk of seed quality problems if they are not harvested soon after maturity.Precip Analysis 092716For details of the main diseases that cause these problems, I refer to you to a blog from last fall (Oct 16) when seed quality problems were horrendous –  Soybean Seed Quality Continues to Deteriorate. 

But to review, the seed decaying diseases are worse when wet weather is combined with relatively warm conditions, like we are having now.  Early-maturing varieties, especially those planted in April and early-May will have the worst seed quality because they are maturing during a warmer time of the year.  I’m most concerned about maturity group (MG) III and IV soybeans; MG V’s are not yet mature.  Last year, later-maturing varieties fared better than early varieties, as shown in the 2015 variety test data below.  We rate seed on a scale of 1 to 5, with 1 being a perfect seed and 5 being an unsaleable product.  Usually, anything averaging 2.5 or less is pretty good seed.  Double-crop soybean seed quality is always better since they are maturing during a cooler time of the year.Seed Quality 2015

What can you do to minimize these disease?  Harvest as soon as possible.  Phomopsis seed decay will only get worse the longer that you leave mature plants in the field.  And pray for cooler and dryer conditions in October and November.

Insect update for Sep. 29, 2016

The 2016 survey of Virginia soybean for brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) and kudzu bug is now finished.  We would like to acknowledge the Virginia Soybean Board and the USDA/NIFA Extension Implementation Project for their funding support.  Since mid-July, scouts Ed Seymore, Jamie Hogue, and the Tidewater AREC entomology crew made 867 soybean field visits to 68 counties for this project.  Ed and Jamie traveled a combined 22,600 miles.  BMSB were found in 42 counties, with the highest populations coming from Bedford, Shenandoah, Rappahannock, and Orange Counties.  Please see the map for the BMSB densities.

BMSB_density_map_2016

Large numbers of green stink bug were reported in soybean in King George (11 greens per sample), Nelson (12), New Kent (10), Rappahannock (11), and Lunenburg (9); these beans were all in the R6 growth stage.  The threshold for R3-4 to R7 stages is 5 stink bugs per 15 sweeps.  Moderate green stink bug populations (approximately 3-5) were reported in most of the other counties surveyed this past week.  After R7 (beginning maturity),  the stink bug threshold is doubled.

Scouts reported less than one kudzu bug nymph per 15 sweeps this week.  Over the course of the season, kudzu bugs were found in soybean in 32 counties.  Here is the final kudzu bug map:

KB_map_29_Sep_2016We conducted 77 cypermethrin vial tests this week with 61% survival by corn earworm moths.  We plan to finish out the season with what we collect and test next week.  The seasonal average now stands at 43.1% survival.

AVT_29_Sep_2016Finally, our black light traps have been shut down for 2016.  The assistance of the participating Virginia Cooperative Extension Agents, growers, and Virginia Tech faculty and staff in this study is greatly appreciated.  Here are the final tables for this season:  BLT_29_Sep_2016

Registration is open for the Mid-Atlantic Crop Management School.

CropSchool

November 15-17, 2016
Princess Royale Hotel in Ocean City, MD

Registration is open for the 22nd annual Mid-Atlantic Crop Management School. This year’s school will feature 2 ½ days of timely presentations in the areas of crop management, nutrient management, pest management, soil and water management, and climate. This year, the school will also feature the popular Crop School on Wheels field tour (limited to 50 participants). Nutrient management (VA, MD, DE, PA), pesticide, and certified crop adviser (CCA) credits will be available. Register early for the best selection of sessions.

The session schedule is online at: https://cdn.extension.udel.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/12/2016/09/23151701/2016_CMS_Program_Final.pdf

Registration information is posted at: http://www.cvent.com/events/2016-crop-management-school/event-summary-bbd4a7d2717545af9770626ef761a930.aspx?tw=E3-C1-0B-14-32-A0-CB-AB-1C-D6-9A-06-46-74-20-5F.

Contact Amy Shober (ashober@udel.edu) or Jarrod Miller (jarrod@umd.edu) with questions about the school. We look forward to seeing you there.

The Mid-Atlantic Crop Management School is organized by Extension Specialists from Virginia, West Virginia, Delaware, and Maryland featuring speakers from across the nation.

BMSB and kudzu bug survey of soybean: Sep. 22, 2016 update

Our soybean scouts detected brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) in three new Virginia counties this week (Halifax, Greensville, and Brunswick).  They found soybean fields in the following counties at BMSB threshold (3-5 adults + medium to large nymphs per 2-minute visual count or per 15 sweeps):  Albemarle, Bedford, Fluvanna, Goochland, Greene, Orange, Rappahannock, and Shenandoah.  Please see the map for more details.

When monitoring, don’t forget about our native stink bug species–we have been seeing moderate to high numbers of green stink bugs in some fields.  The threshold for a normal mix of stink bug species (green, brown, and BMSB) is 5 in 15 sweeps.

BMSB_map_22_Sep_2016Kudzu bug numbers in soybean remain below threshold.

KB_map_22_Sep_2016

Insect pest update for Sep. 15, 2016

Soybean–brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB):  Our scouts detected BMSB in two new counties this week–Charles City and Stafford.  Eight counties were at threshold (3-5 per 2-minute visual count along the field edge)–these are listed at the bottom of the map.

BMSB_map_15_Sep_2016Soybean–kudzu bug:  A range of zero to 5 kudzu bugs per 15 sweeps was reported this week.  While no counties were at threshold levels (15 kudzu bugs per 15 sweeps), the highest numbers were reported in Campbell (5), Appomattox (4), and Amelia (3 per 15 sweeps).

KB_map_15_Sep_2016

Sorghum–white sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari:  No new counties reported for this pest this week.  So far this season, it has been confirmed in the following Virginia counties:  Amelia, Bedford, Charles City, Dinwiddie, Franklin, Greensville, Hanover, Isle of Wight, New Kent, Nottoway, Prince George, Southampton, Suffolk, Surry, and Sussex.

Corn earworm/bollworm resistance monitoring:  Survival of moths in the vial tests remains high.  We evaluated 297 moths this week, with 40.5% survival to the 5 microgram/vial rate of cypermethrin.  Our seasonal average stands at 42.8% survival (n = 1,552  moths evaluated).

Black light trap report:  Some reporting stations had a small bump upwards in the number of corn earworm moths captured (Warsaw, Prince George, Essex); declines occurred in Suffolk and Southampton.  Very few BMSB were caught.  Please refer to the tables for more information.  BLT_15_Sep_2016